The Traumatic Process: Conceptualization and Treatment
existential threat may be compounded by an inability to cope, which affects the perception of helplessness and loss of lawfulness.
The traumatic process has three stages: Alert, Impact, and Post-Traumatic. The common elements in the treatment of all the stages of traumatic stress are the need to control and expand life, and to achieve lawfulness and meaningfulness. In the preferred model of treatment, there are essential differences at each of the three stages of the traumatic process: 1) primary prevention at the stage of alert focuses on planning strategies for coping, 2) secondary prevention at the stage of impact derives from forward treatment and debriefing, and 3) tertiary treatment at the post-traumatic stage attends to coping with internal chaos and arbitrariness.
Crisis and crisis intervention do not belong in the realm of stress and trauma, as they were initially constructed on developmental constructs rather than stress.